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Weather History and Climate (500 B.C. to 450 B.C.)

550 B.C. to 500 B.C. | 500 B.C. to 450 B.C. | 450 B.C. to 400 B.C.

CLIMATE (500-450 B.C.):

Recall that the climate curve as presented in this series of charts is a deduction from the pooling of all the source materials available. including the known nature of the climatic cycle itself. For example. if it is fairly certain where one phase of 10-year, 20-year, or 100-year cycle happens to be. reasonable surmisals can be made regarding the positions and lengths of the adjacent phases. Accordingly, the combined evidence points strongly to the development, immediately after 500 B.C., of one of the strongest warm-wet phases in the 100-year cycle to have occurred at any time in history since 600 B.C. It was warm most of the time for the next 200 years. There is almost no break between the 100-year cycle that began around 505 B.C. and the next one. That is, where the cold half of the cycle might have been expected there was a cold period that only lasted for about ten years. Much of the time during this whole warm-wet period the California sequoias were growing very fast; it is believed that near this time the Caspian Sea was very high; Nile floods were frequent occurrences; evidently, oases in the Sahara were large; and Europe had great amounts of rainfall, Tree data suggest a drop in temperature of about ten years centering on 460 B.C.; then it turned very warm and wet again.

HISTORY (500-450 B.C.):

At the beginning of this 50-year period occurred one of the Greatest Golden Age epochs in all history. The Greek City States like Athens, Sparta, Corinth, and Thebes were all in their prime and were beginning an era of great prosperity, but especially Athens. East of the Mediterranean, the new Persia became powerful and aggressive and clashed in the famous wars with the Greeks that are described in every history of the Ancient World. Rome was strong enough to begin her long career of conquest. The cultural awakening, however, was not confined to the Mediterranean area alone. This was an important period both in the history of China and India. There are evidences pointing to virile civilizations on the order of warrior nations in Scotland and also in North and Central America. There probably were strong tribal nations in Central Asia, and doubtless also in Africa, south of Egypt. In Egypt there was a conspicuous economic and cultural awakening. There were several empires around the Black Sea.

Most noteworthy of all, however, was the Golden Age of Greece, While the "official" Golden Age known to historians took place in the next 50-year period during the days of Pericles, his leadership marked the end of the Golden Age, not its beginning. The beginning occurred during the first outburst of political and artistic vigor at the opening of the century. At this time lived the famous Greek dramatist, Aeschylus. The Athenian Empire, characterized by the leadership of Athens over the Greek City States to the north and west, was founded in 478 B.C.

Struggles between the upper and lower classes of society have come to a head during practically every cold period in history. So it was in the brief cold period that centered on 460 B.C. Party struggles flared up in the Greek States between the aristocrats and the democrats. The famous Pericles. statesman and general, led the democratic party.

As it remained warm, governments increased their control over the people. Athens not only tightened the reins over her allies in a League which she had organized, but restricted the freedom of her own people. During the cold period around 460, the democrats in most places succeeded in gaining control of the government.

The Greek City States fought among themselves during both warm and cold times. During warm times the wars assumed more of the nature of imperialistic conquests for hegemonies over the weaker States. Sparta and Athens pursued long wars of this type. During cold times, the conflicts assumed more of the nature of party struggles between the reactionaries and the liberals.

 Information from Weather Science Foundation.