550 B.C. to 500 B.C. | 500 B.C. to 450 B.C. | 450 B.C. to 400 B.C.
600 B.C. to 550 B.C.
550 B.C. to 500 B.C.
500 B.C. to 450 B.C.
450 B.C. to 400 B.C.
400 B.C. to 350 B.C.
350 B.C. to 300 B.C.
300 B.C. to 250 B.C.
250 B.C. to 200 B.C.
200 B.C. to 150 B.C.
150 B.C. to 100 B.C.
100 B.C. to 550 B.C.
50 B.C. to 0 A.D.
0 A.D. to 50 A.D.
50 A.D. to 100 A.D.
100 A.D. to 150 A.D.
150 A.D. to 200 A.D.
200 A.D. to 250 A.D.
250 A.D. to 300 A.D.
300 A.D. to 350 A.D.
350 A.D. to 400 A.D.
400 A.D. to 450 A.D.
450 A.D. to 500 A.D.
500 A.D. to 550 A.D.
550 A.D. to 600 A.D.
600 A.D. to 650 A.D.
650 A.D. to 700 A.D.
700 A.D. to 750 A.D.
750 A.D. to 800 A.D.
800 A.D. to 850 A.D.
850 A.D. to 900 A.D.
900 A.D. to 950 A.D.
950 A.D. to 1000 A.D.
1000 A.D. to 1050 A.D.
1050 A.D. to 1100 A.D.
1100 A.D. to 1150 A.D.
1150 A.D. to 1200 A.D.
1200 A.D. to 1250 A.D.
1250 A.D. to 1300 A.D.
1300 A.D. to 1350 A.D.
1350 A.D. to 1400 A.D.
1400 A.D. to 1450 A.D.
1450 A.D. to 1500 A.D.
1500 A.D. to 1550 A.D.
1550 A.D. to 1600 A.D.
1600 A.D. to 1650 A.D.
1650 A.D. to 1700 A.D.
1700 A.D. to 1750 A.D.
1750 A.D. to 1800 A.D.
1800 A.D. to 1850 A.D.
1850 A.D. to 1900 A.D.
1900 A.D. to 1950 A.D.
1950 A.D. to 2000 A.D.
Recall that the climate curve as presented in this series of charts is a
deduction from the pooling of all the source materials available. including
the known nature of the climatic cycle itself. For example. if it is fairly
certain where one phase of 10-year, 20-year, or 100-year cycle happens to
be. reasonable surmisals can be made regarding the positions and lengths of
the adjacent phases. Accordingly, the combined evidence points strongly to
the development, immediately after 500 B.C., of one of the strongest
warm-wet phases in the 100-year cycle to have occurred at any time in
history since 600 B.C. It was warm most of the time for the next 200 years.
There is almost no break between the 100-year cycle that began around 505
B.C. and the next one. That is, where the cold half of the cycle might have
been expected there was a cold period that only lasted for about ten years.
Much of the time during this whole warm-wet period the California sequoias
were growing very fast; it is believed that near this time the Caspian Sea
was very high; Nile floods were frequent occurrences; evidently, oases in
the Sahara were large; and Europe had great amounts of rainfall, Tree data
suggest a drop in temperature of about ten years centering on 460 B.C.; then
it turned very warm and wet again.
At the beginning of this 50-year period occurred one of the Greatest
Golden Age epochs in all history. The Greek City States like Athens, Sparta,
Corinth, and Thebes were all in their prime and were beginning an era of
great prosperity, but especially Athens. East of the Mediterranean, the new
Persia became powerful and aggressive and clashed in the famous wars with
the Greeks that are described in every history of the Ancient World. Rome
was strong enough to begin her long career of conquest. The cultural
awakening, however, was not confined to the Mediterranean area alone. This
was an important period both in the history of China and India. There are
evidences pointing to virile civilizations on the order of warrior nations
in Scotland and also in North and Central America. There probably were
strong tribal nations in Central Asia, and doubtless also in Africa, south
of Egypt. In Egypt there was a conspicuous economic and cultural awakening.
There were several empires around the Black Sea.
Most noteworthy of all, however, was the Golden Age of Greece, While the
"official" Golden Age known to historians took place in the next 50-year
period during the days of Pericles, his leadership marked the end of the
Golden Age, not its beginning. The beginning occurred during the first
outburst of political and artistic vigor at the opening of the century. At
this time lived the famous Greek dramatist, Aeschylus. The Athenian Empire,
characterized by the leadership of Athens over the Greek City States to the
north and west, was founded in 478 B.C.
Struggles between the upper and lower classes of society have come to a
head during practically every cold period in history. So it was in the brief
cold period that centered on 460 B.C. Party struggles flared up in the Greek
States between the aristocrats and the democrats. The famous Pericles.
statesman and general, led the democratic party.
As it remained warm, governments increased their control over the people.
Athens not only tightened the reins over her allies in a League which she
had organized, but restricted the freedom of her own people. During the cold
period around 460, the democrats in most places succeeded in gaining control
of the government.
The Greek City States fought among themselves during both warm and cold
times. During warm times the wars assumed more of the nature of
imperialistic conquests for hegemonies over the weaker States. Sparta and
Athens pursued long wars of this type. During cold times, the conflicts
assumed more of the nature of party struggles between the reactionaries and
Information from Weather Science Foundation.